Temple Complex Overview


A number of important ancient cities and temples are known from ancient Egypt. One of the most famous cities is Thebes, a major religious center and the burial place of the kings of the New Kingdom. The city’s tombs, including the Valley of the Kings and Queens, are located on the west bank of the river Nile, in the area’s limestone cliffs. The mortuary temples of many of the New Kingdom kings edge the flood plain of the Nile. The houses and workshops of the ancient Thebans were located on the river’s east bank. Little remains of the ancient city, as it is covered by the modern city of Luxor.


A series of important temples, composing the religious heart of Thebes, are most of what remains today. To the south, close to the banks of the Nile, lies the temple of Luxor. To the north and connected by the sphinx alleyway stand the temples of Karnak. Karnak can be divided into four sections: south Karnak, with its temple of the goddess Mut, east Karnak, the location of a temple to the Aten, north Karnak, the site of the temple of the god Montu, and central Karnak, with its temple to the god Amun-Ra.


The Amun-Ra complex at Karnak encompasses a dizzying number of pylons, courts, pillared and columned halls, bark shrines and even small separate temples. A huge mud brick temenos wall encloses the Amun-Ra precinct today; a series of earlier walls (with smaller footprints) have been identified through excavations at the temple. Three major processional ways have been discovered leading out from the precinct: each of these monumental paths lined with stone sphinx statues was involved in the procession of the divine image to neighboring temples, as the whole of Thebes became part of the ritual landscape during festival occasions.


In the Egyptian language, the temple of Amun is usually referred to as Per-Amun, or “the house of Amun.” In many ways, the temple indeed played the role of the god’s abode on earth. Here, the god’s statue was provided daily with food, drink, and sweet smelling incense and oils. But the god’s house was much more than a mere dwelling; it also included an estate – agricultural lands both around the temple and in other parts of the country – that supplied it with resources. While much of the land around the Karnak temples has not yet been excavated, storehouses, aviaries, production centers for food and drink, animal slaughter areas, and homes for priests have been uncovered, showing that the temples managed a system of production and consumption for its own goods and services. Documents from a variety of periods show that the Amun temple was also involved in a larger, regional network of land ownership and taxation that brought in a substantial amount of wealth to the temple.


Formal archaeological work started at central Karnak in 1895 and is ongoing today. The temple is now one of the best-documented and most frequently discussed ancient Egyptian sites.

About the Model

The Digital Karnak Project has recreated more than 60 structures from Karnak in a real time three-dimensional Virtual Reality model. These architectural features include obelisks, temples, pylons, courts, shrines, enclosure walls, and even a lake. Each building, and its multiple phases of construction, modification and destruction has been reconstructed based on plans and drawings published by Egyptologists. Great effort was made to incorporate the most current available research, and the webpage for each structure includes a detailed description and bibliography of sources for each recreation.

One of the major highlights of the model is the opportunity to watch the temple’s growth through time – moving reign by reign, the model depicts the temple from its earliest hypothesized form in the Middle Kingdom through the Greco-Ptolemaic Period, allowing us to visualize how the buildings and sacred space changed during the temple’s 1500 year lifetime.

It should be stressed that the model represents the state of our knowledge today about the original form of the temple. The model cannot show us Karnak “as it really was,” because we will never know everything about a site so ancient. Our goal has been to faithfully recreate the scholastic interpretations of each element of the site, interpretations which themselves will have flaws. Many details have been left out, and many elements of the basic architecture of the recreated buildings are based on hypotheses and conjecture. What the model does offer is an approximation of how buildings may have looked (in a very general way) and a chance to tour through and interact with this recreated space.

As it is, new information gained through ongoing excavations at Karnak will most definitely change our understanding of the precinct, and the model will need to be continually modified to reflect the new “reality.”


Barguet, Paul. (1962),Le temple d’Amon-Rê à Karnak; essai d’exégèse. Le Caire: Impr. de l’Institut français d’archéologie orientale

Björkman, Gun. (1971),Kings at Karnak. A study of the treatment of the monuments of royal predecessors in the early New Kingdom. Uppsala: Universitet

Shafer, Byron. Shafer, Byron (1997),Temples of ancient Egypt. Ithaca: Cornell University Press

Blyth, Elizabeth. (2006),Karnak: evolution of a temple. London: Routledge

best cbd gummies in oklahoma bioblend cbd gummies phone number delta 8 cbd gummies reviews dr oz cbd gummies review where can you buy cbd gummies 300 mg 10 mg thc gummy bear cbd oil gummy bear how many mg of thc gummies to sleep is bio lyfe cbd gummies legit cbd gummies for copd reviews cbd gummy bears near me dr jennifer aniston cbd gummies ebay cbd gummies cbd gummy near me dr oz cbd gummies for copd natures stimulant cbd gummies 300 mg natures boost cbd gummies reviews 2024 tinnitus earth made cbd gummies cbd gummies for anxiety forum cbd softgels vs gummies martha stewart cbd gummies reddit are king cbd gummys quality cbd shelf stable cbd gummies recipe moody thc gummies is peak 8 cbd gummies legit can i take tylenol with cbd gummies cbd gummy with thc golfer cbd gummies flintstone cbd gummies harrelsons own cbd gummies cbd gummy reviews 2024 power cbd gummies reviews consumer reports natures stimulant cbd gummies ed prime cbd gummies 300mg amazon

flying monkey gummies delta 8 review cbd gummies canada bulk where to get cbd gummies without thc certified natures cbd gummies grownmd male enhancement cbd gummies how long does delta 8 gummies stay in your system pure kana cbd gummies reviews questions users have about cbd gummies nuleaf cbd cbn gummies delta 9 gummies high bioscience cbd gummies penis enlargement cbd gummies from buitrago cigars fab cbd sleep gummies buy gummies with cbd got in mail to order cbd gummies thc gummies legal thc gummies legal new york cbd gummies organic hemp extract 300 mg science what is delta 8 gummies used for does vigor vita cbd gummies work buy cbd gummies in atlanta gummy bear cbd edibles can thc gummies help migraines buy 10mg cbd gummies amazon cbd sleep gummies how much cbd gummy should i take for anxiety where can you buy purekana cbd gummies will cbd gummies help erectile dysfunction can cbd gummies help sinus problems jeremy renner cbd gummies cbd lemon drop gummies openeye hemp cbd gummies cbd melatonin gummies creating better days ultra gummies cbd dynathrive cbd gummies canada delta 8 gummies what is it how many 10mg thc gummies should i eat cbd gummies uly

keto gmy bhb gummies bioscience keto gummies pioneer woman review of ace keto acv gummies umzu weight loss supplements proton keto acv gummies shark tank what is the weight loss gummy from shark tank chris pratt before weight loss gummies health benefits apple cider vinegar gummies alli weight loss supplement jekalyn carr weight loss gummies how to take ntx keto bhb gummies k3 spark mineral chemist warehouse jennifer garner weight loss gummies kratom weight loss gummies can fiber supplements assist in weight loss keto gummies commercial gemini keto gummies with calcium and magnesium ex carbo keto gummies weight loss gummies john goodman best apple cider vinegar with the mother gummies weight loss supplements for women top 10 vitamin b12 gummies for weight loss are apple cider vinegar gummies as effective as the liquid best supplement for muscle gain and weight loss which are the best keto gummies for weight loss how much is keto acv gummies mineral gummies for weight loss lean weight loss supplements best weight loss supplement without jitters bio life keto blast gummies rowing machine weight loss gummies uptime energy supplement weight loss

true form keto gummies customer service is pro burn keto gummies legit do the keto weight loss gummies really work does oprah endorse the weight loss gummies best weight loss gummies for woman justified keto acv gummies dim supplement reviews for weight loss gummy turmeric weight loss k1 keto gummies best powder supplements for weight loss bodybuilding forum supplements women should i take for weight loss shehnaaz gill weight loss gummies go keto weight loss gummies goli apple cider vinegar gummies in pakistan david krumholtz weight loss gummies wendy red velvet weight loss gummies xenadrine weight loss dietary supplement do fiber gummies help with weight loss are bio science keto gummies safe old school labs vintage burn thermogenic weight loss supplement keto blast gummy bears para que sirve nutracure apple cider vinegar gummies mentom keto gummies are weight loss supplements fda approved lifetime keto plus acv gummies reviews keto bpi weight loss gummies peptides weight loss gummies keto gummy bears do they work bee sting weight loss supplement ivanka weight loss gummies metabolic keto acv gummies do enzyme supplements help weight loss slim fast apple cider vinegar gummies directions what is sequence weight loss gummies

pills make penis 12 14 long all natural do the penis enlarge pills work do you want penis enlargement pills meme how to get bigger penis size sex a sleeping pill rhino sex pills for sale who has bigger penis best libido boosting gummies does viagra make my penis bigger bioscience gummies male enhancement not even ed pills rxz male enhancement pills how long before having sex after abortion pill how to last longer on bed as a man what male enhancement pills start with n online ed pill what is the v pill sex best sex booster pills in india rescue natural male enhancement pills web md how to last longer during sex for men do choice cbd gummies really work calcium pills shaped like bones for kids sex pill for male in india pure gummies review viagra for men other ed pills can you have sex after missing 2 pills supplements that increase penis size best male enhancement supplements pills

after sex anti pregnancy pill prime x ed pills what are the best over the counter boner pills marathon sex pill dragons den ed pills best sex pill for man over the counter does ginger pills help with erection natural pills erectile dysfunction ed pill substitutes cbd power sleep gummies does penis growing pills work penis enlargement pills for teens best male enhancement pills india how to make sex last longer without ejaculating over the counter sex pills that sex just on the pill sex pill over the counter how do u make ur penis bigger what do erectile dysfunction pills look like does vitamax sex pills make u last longer when can you have sex after pill abortion buy male enhancement pills erectile dysfunction pills otc that work veseie sex pills