Aten Temples

Related Features

Originally built by Amenhotep IV/Akhenaten – 1352 BCE to 1336 BCE

Other works initiated by Amenhotep IV/Akhenaten:

Aten Temples, 3rd Pylon

Introduction


The inscribed remains of four structures built by Akhenaten and dedicated to the solar god Aten have been recovered from Karnak. The in-situ remains of one of these buildings, the Gem-pa-Aten (“the sun disk is found”), were found east of the Amun-Ra temple precinct. The temple was fronted by an open court with a colonnade of square pillars, against which rested alternating colossal statues of king Akhenaten (Amenhotep IV) and his queen Nefertiti. Carved and painted decoration on the walls of this courtyard depicted the king and queen during various parts of the royal jubilee festival as they entered and exited the palace and as they made offerings to the gods. The eastern section of the temple has not been excavated, and therefore its ground plan and exact size remain unknown. The complex was enclosed with a mud brick wall.
Measurements: The estimated size of the Gem-pa-Aten is 130m x 216m. The court walls rose approximately 7m in height. The “talatat” blocks used to build the structure were roughly 52cm long by 26cm wide and 22cm height.

Phases of Construction

Amenhotep IV/Akhenaten

Akhenaten built the Gem-pa-Aten in the third year of his reign to celebrate his jubilee festival (the heb-sed). By year six of his reign, however, Akhenaten had moved the court and royal palace to a new city in Middle Egypt, modern Tell el-Amarna. The extent to which the Gem-pa-Aten and the other structures dedicated to the Aten at Thebes functioned during the king’s hiatus is unknown.

Construction materials: sandstone “talatat” blocks, mudbrick

Destruction: Horemheb

Horemheb dismantled the Gem-pa-Aten and other Aten temples and used the “talatat” blocks as fill in pylons two, nine and ten. Ramesses II used additional blocks from the temples as fill in the pylon of Luxor Temple. The colossi in the Gem-pa-Aten’s court were knocked down and left in-situ.

About the reconstruction model of Amenhotep IV/Akhenaten

The reconstruction of the first court of the Gem-pa-Aten was based on the excavation plans and reconstructive drawings published by Redford (1984: 87, 103; 1999: fig. 50).

The stone patterning for the colonnade of the first court was based on the drawings of Redford (1984: 103) and the dimensions of “talatat” blocks. A plain sandstone color was added to the blocks to approximate the original appearance.

None of the colorfully decorated relief scenes from the colonnade were reconstructed on the model.

Documentation

Arnold, Dorothea. Arnold, Dorothea (1996),An artistic revolution: the early years of king Amenhotep IV/Akhenaten. The royal women of Amarna : images of beauty from ancient Egypt. New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art, 17-39.

Brock, Edwin. (2004),New information about the Akhenenaten temple at Karnak. Amarna Research Conference. Tucson, AZ:

Redford, Donald. (1976),The Akhenaten Temple Project: Initial Discoveries. ArWarminster: Aris and Phillipsvol. 1

Redford, Donald. (1981),The Excavations at East Karnak. Journal of the American Research Center in Egypt. Princeton: American Research Center in Egyptvol. XVIII , 11-41.

Redford, Donald. (1981),Interim Report on the Excavations at East Karnak. The Journal of the Society for the Study of Egyptian Antiquities. Toronto: Benben Publicationsvol. 11 , 243-262.

Redford, Donald. Anonymous, (1984),Akhenaten, the Heretic King. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 255.

Redford, Donald. (1988),The Akhenaten Temple Project: Rwd-mnw, Foreigners and Inscriptions. Aegypti Texta Propositaque. Toronto: University of Toronto Pressvol. 2

Redford, Donald. Bard, Kathryn (1999),Karnak, Akhenaten Temples. Encyclopedia of the Archaeology of Ancient Egypt. London: Routledge, 391-394.

Redford, Donald. (2000),Akhenaten Temple Project.

Redford, Donald. (1991),East Karnak Excavations 1987-1989. Journal of the American Research Center in Egypt. Princeton: American Research Center in Egyptvol. XXVIII , 75-106.

Vergnieux, Robert. (1992),Recherches sur les monuments thébains d’Amenhotep IV à l’aide d’outils informatiques méthodes et résultats. Lyon: Université de Lyon IIvol. Ph.D.